From a poster going around Tumblr. Some of the examples have been edited a bit to suit myself.
1) Ad Hominem. Latin term meaning “against the man.” It is discrediting the opponent instead of his or her argument.
For example: “You’re fat, therefore you cannot be correct.”
2) Faulty Cause and Effect. The belief that if event B occurs just after event A, then A causes B.
For example: “Whenever I wash my car, it rains the next day. Therefore, washing my car alters weather patterns.”
3) Either-Or. Suggesting that there are only two possibilities for any given situation, rather than more.
For example: “Either you lose weight, or you are self-destructive.”
4) Guilt By Association. “Attempting to discredit an idea, person, or believe by associating it with an undesirable person or group.
For example: “I can’t believe you are a Christian! Hitler was a Christian!”
5) Loaded Question. A loaded question is a question phrased so that it forces an answer based on a false or controversial premise.
For example: “Why do fats hate thin people so much?”